Iron is naturally occurring and a second most abundant element on earth. It is comprised of up to 80 % earth’s core and up to 30 % of earth’s crust. It cannot be found on earth in its native form under normal conditions. It is normally found in sulfide and oxide with lot of impurities.
Cast iron is extremely strong and durable when used appropriately and protected from adverse exposure. It contains between 2.0% to 6% Carbon by weight. It is made by reducing iron ore in blast furnace. As it is a brittle metal, so it can be broken like glass.
Wrought iron is easily welded and forged iron. It contain 0.04 % Carbon by weight.
Two of the qualities possessed by wrought iron are its ability to be drawn out – “ductility”, and its ability to be hammered into shapes – “malleability”. It is these special characteristics which make wrought iron eminently suitable for decorative iron work, for which it is still preferred by many blacksmiths.
Steel is a generally hard, strong, durable, malleable alloy of iron and carbon. It is a mixture of iron and 0.3% to 1.7 % carbon by weight. Adding carbon may increase a huge difference in the harshness of steel. One of the disadvantages is that it becomes less ductile by doing so.