Quenching steel results in transformation of austenite into martensite, it is not completely transformed. There are some of the crystals of austenite that remain unchanged and are not affected by quenching below martensite-finish temperature. This can further be transformed into martensite, through slow cooling of the metal at extremely lower temperatures. Normally, cold treating includes […]

Martensitic steel in its un-tempered hard form is much brittle for use. One of the methods to alleviate this difficulty is tempering. Tempering of quenched parts is required for majority of its applications. To get toughness tempering includes heating of steel at less than the lower-critical temperature, which is often 400-1105F or 205-595C as per […]

It is a process that is used for providing grain size uniformity & composition throughout an-alloy.  This term also describes ferrous alloys. Ferrous alloys are austeniitzed & cooled in the open air. Results of Normalization process is not restricted to peartile, it also produces bainite and martensite that gives stronger and harder steel which is […]

Heat treatment physical process provides an effective approach to the properties of metal by controlling the rate of dissemination and the rate of cooling inside the micro-structure after the metal is heated. Metallic materials comprise of a microstructure of little precious crystals called “grains” or sometimes crystallites. The nature of the grains is also the […]